The rail fence cipher is a simple transposition cipher. Tool to decrypt/encrypt Bacon automatically. Rail Fence Cipher Rosicrucian Cipher Rot Cipher Rout Cipher Scytale Spiral Cipher Tap Code Templar Cipher The Code of Western University Library Transposition Cipher Trifid Cipher Vigenere Cipher Wig Wag Dice Cipher. The method is named after Julius Caesar, who used it in his private correspondence. The encoded message is written in zig-zag (like a rail fence/ sawtooth) along a path with N levels/floors. Braille: Brainfuck & Ook! dCode is free and its tools are a valuable help in games, maths, geocaching, puzzles and problems to solve every day!A suggestion ? Bacon Encoder. The letters are arranged in a way which is similar to the shape of the edge of the rail fence. The Trifid cipher was invented by the French amateur cryptographer Félix Delastelle and described in 1902. In the Rail Fence cipher, the message is written downwards on successive "rails" of an imaginary fence, then moving up when we get to the bottom (like a zig-zag). Rail fence cipher decoder. When we reach the top rail, the message is written downwards again until the whole plaintext is written out. In the rail fence cipher, the plain-text is written downwards and diagonally on successive rails of an imaginary fence. I substituted * for spaces just to illustrate that the spaces are not removed. Cryptography. The Rail Fence cipher is a form of transposition cipher that gets its name from the way in which it's encoded. The shape that is formed by the letters is similar to the shape of the top edge of the rail fence. A transposition cipher involves the rearranging of the letters in the plaintext to encrypt the message. Selected Formulas 14. In a transposition cipher, the order of the alphabets is re-arranged to obtain the cipher-text. Characters are arranged in a zigzag pattern on the rail of the fence, and finally, characters are concatenated in rails for encryption. The sequence of letters on the upper line is then followed by the sequence on the lower line, to create the final encrypted message.The security of the cipher can be improved by choosing more than two lines to encrypt your message with. Baconian Cipher Decoder. Now you stack the groups on top of each other and read off the message vertically. A message encoded by Rail-Fence has an index of coincidence equal to that of the language of the original text. Example: The original plain text is DCODEZIGZAG. Rail-Fence Cipher • Two Columns • C = 2 12. In the rail fence cipher, the plaintext is written downwards and diagonally on successive "rails" of an imaginary fence, then moving up when we get to the bottom. The Dice Cipher is not dice, it's just squares with dots in certain places. Find out about the substitution cipher and get messages automatically cracked and created online. The letters should be read in rows, usually from the top row down to the bottom one. For example, the original plaintext is “KIFANGA”. What are the variants of the Rail Fence cipher? Symmetric ciphers use the same (or very similar from the algorithmic point of view) keys for both encryption and decryption of a message. This is in contrast to a substitution cipher , in which the plaintext letters are replaced by letters from another alphabet (or … Write the expected zigzag form and complete it by lines, before reading as zigzag. Forum/Help. For example, when "THIS_IS_A_SECRET_MESSAGE" is encrypted with 4 rails, it is as follows. When the top rail is reached, the message is written downwards again until the whole plaintext is written out. Here you will get rail fence cipher program in C and C++ for encryption and decryption. Rail fence cipher is a transposition cipher. Paypal; Patreon; Sponsored ads . The Rail Fence was invented in the ancient times. The message is then read off in rows. no data, script or API access will be for free, same for Rail Fence (Zig-Zag) Cipher download for offline use on PC, tablet, iPhone or Android ! Strings. Frequency analysis reveals usual occurrences of common letters similar to a plain text. Rail Fence Cipher (also called a zigzag cipher) generally refers to a form of transposition cipher. Details; Solutions; Forks (7) Discourse (95) Loading description... Algorithms. The railfence cipher offers essentially no communication security, and it will be shown that it can be easily broken even by hand. Recommended Gear. Information about the Input Text will appear here once it has been entered or edited. It is a transposition cipher that follows a simple rule for mixing up the characters in the plaintext to form the ciphertext. It is a kind of transposition cipher which is also known as zigzag cipher. Except explicit open source licence (indicated CC / Creative Commons / free), any algorithm, applet or snippet (converter, solver, encryption / decryption, encoding / decoding, ciphering / deciphering, translator), or any function (convert, solve, decrypt / encrypt, decipher / cipher, decode / encode, translate) written in any informatic language (PHP, Java, C#, Python, Javascript, Matlab, etc.) Cipher 7: Sometimes solving a case is like doing the Cha-cha, you take a couple steps forward only to take a few more steps back. Usage. Substitution. Here Key = 3. - It is possible to allow the spaces and punctuation, which shifts the characters. The Rail Fence cipher and transposition ciphers in general are relatively easy to distinguish from substitution ciphers because the letter frequencies in the encrypted message remain the same as in unencrypted messages. How to decipher Rail Fence without the number of levels? The Rail Fence cipher is a form of transposition cipher that gets its name from the way in which it's encoded. Rail Fence Cipher is a transposition cipher that encrypts by writing a text in zigzag and then read from left to right. Caesar cipher: Encode and decode online. Hash - ALL; MD2; MD5; SHA-1; SHA-256; SHA-384; SHA-512; CRC32; 0. Support. In the rail fence cipher, the plain text is written downwards and diagonally on successive rails of an imaginary fence, then moving up when the bottom rail is reached. It was already used by the ancient Greeks. ), it is called a railfence. A transposition cipher involves the rearranging of the letters in the plaintext to encrypt the message. Modern Ciphers. For more information about the ciphers featured on this website, click here. ROT18 is one of the single transliteration ciphers that encrypts by replacing the characters in the text with other characters. D---E---Z--. Ciphertexts produced by transposition ciphers are relatively easy to recognize, because the frequency distribution of all ciphertext alphabet letters is the same as in plain messages written in the same language. This is in contrast to a substitution cipher, in which the plaintext letters are replaced by letters from another alphabet (or by different letters from the same alphabet). This is the third in a series about cryptography; an extremely important aspect of computer science and cyber security. For encryption we write the message diagonally in zigzag form in a matrix having total rows = key and total columns = message length. To put it simply, in rail fence cipher, the plaintext is written downwards on successive rails of an imaginary fence, and starting a … The message is then read off in rows. The Rail Fence Cipher is a transposition cipher, which rearranges the plaintext letters by drawing them in a way that they form a shape of the rails of an imaginary fence. Rail Fence Cipher is a transposition cipher that encrypts by writing a text in zigzag and then read from left to right. Letter 1 Letter 2 Add a space separator every 5 characters Encrypt. When you rearrange your text in a "wave" sort of pattern (down, down, up, up, down, down, etc. The message is written in a zigzag pattern on an imaginary fence, thus its name. Rail Fence decryption requires to know the number of levels N. For example, let’s decrypt the message “KNIAGFA” with N = 3. Use the above Rail Fence decoder and encoder to encrypt/decrypt simple messages. To put it simply, in rail fence cipher, the plaintext is written downwards on successive rails of an imaginary fence, and starting a new column when the bottom is reached. It encrypts a text to rail fence.Logic in my code is taking a string and converts them to ascii numbers.If you take the logic of rail fence the text is stored in this way if its rail is 3.00,11,22,13,04,15,26,.. rail,fence,zig,zag,zigzag,saw,transposition,track,railfence, Source : https://www.dcode.fr/rail-fence-cipher. Create two functions to encode and then decode a string using the Rail Fence Cipher. In the rail fence cipher, the plaintext is written downwards and diagonally on successive "rails" of an imaginary fence, then moving up when we reach the bottom rail. For example, if 3 rails and the message WE ARE DISCOVERED. This can be averted by using a more common letter, such as “E”, to fill the null spaces, as it will still be clear to the recipient that these are not part of the message as they will appear at the end of the plaintext. Rail Fence cipher is a transposition cipher consisting in writing a text in zig-zag and read it from left to right. The encryption key is a number of rails. JavaScript. The message is then read off in rows. It is possible to allow the spaces and punctuation, which shifts the characters. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. For example, if you are using 3 rails, you would break the secret message into 3 equal groups. Rail Fence. For example, if we have 3 rails and a message of "This is a secret message", you would write out: T S A C T S G H I S R M S E I S E E E A J. For example, the encrypted message is “KNIAGFA”. Base32 to Hex RC4 Bootstring converter Hex & binary It is also known as zigzag cipher. One way to also make the encryption a little bit more secure, is to keep the spaces as characters, and include them in the encryption table. with functionality to (convert, solve, decrypt / encrypt, decipher / cipher, decode / encode, translate) - The first letter is not necessarily the base of the peak or hollow, the zig zag can start in the middle (equivalent to add spaces at the beginning). About Rail Fence Cipher. The Rail Fence Cipher was invented in ancient times. Rail-Fence Cipher F R A N K L I N C O L L E G E M A T H A N D C O M P U T I N G ! Output Text (Cipher Text) Cipher Challenge competition Leave feedback Information about cookies on this site. Choose language... C++ C# Go Haskell Java JavaScript PHP Python Ruby Rust. Rail Fence can be cracked by testing all levels from 2 to N. Use the Brute-force attack button. This number cannot be very big, so the number of possible keys is quite limited. Decrypt Bacon. Example: Encrypt DCODEZIGZAG with N=3 is writting, Example: The encrypted message is DEZCDZGAOIG. In our Enigma - mission X challenge, we looked at how the Enigma machine was used by the Germans during WWII to encrypt radio communications and how code breakers were assigned the job to crack the code of the Enigma machine. Kifanga - Affine. See also: Uppercase Lowercase Writing — Delastelle Trifid Cipher. Transposition (Simple / Block) Transposition (Columnar) Vigenère. Caesar cipher: Encode and decode online. Rumkin.com >> Web-Based Tools >> Ciphers and Codes. Example: Encrypt DCODEZIGZAG with N= 3 is writting. Rail Fence encryption uses an integer for the number of levels of the zigzag. Beaufort. In a rail fence cipher, the plaintext letters are written diagonally in a up-down pattern from left to right. Scytale Cipher; Rail Fence Cipher; Hash. Rail-Fence Cipher • 4 permutations • Conjecture: Length n implies order (n-1) 16. code: Colour conversion: Dvorak keyboard: GC-code > GC-ID conversion Hexahue: Morse: Resistor code: Segment display: Semaphore flags : Signal flags : Numbers. The Atbash cipher is a very specific case of a substitution cipher where the letters of the alphabet are reversed. a bug ? - The fence may begin with a peak or a hollow (up or down). It is not strong as the number of keys is small enough to brute … They are treated in exactly the same way as any other letter. The encryption key is a number of rails. It is also known as zigzag cipher. If only that was reversed! Tools to decrypt/encrypt Rail Fence automatically. For example, when "THIS_IS_A_SECRET_MESSAGE" is encrypted with 4 rails, it is as follows. The Rail Fence Cipher involves writing messages so that alternate letters are written on separate upper and lower lines. When we reach the bottom rail, we traverse upwards moving diagonally, after reaching the top rail, the direction is changed again. Rail Fence Cipher (also called a zigzag cipher) generally refers to a form of transposition cipher. For each cipher, there is a detailed description of how the cipher works, and a little bit of history, and also examples of the cipher in use, some questions for you to attempt, and an activity to perform the cipher (this can be used to check your answers to the questions or to make your own encrypted messages). Input Text (Cipher Text) Reverse input text. This is the case for the Rail Fence Cipher, a very interesting way of delivering messages. The name comes from the way letters are arranged. What is the difference between Rail Fence and ZigZag. Take the text "WAFFLES FOR BREAKFAST" and arrange them in waves like the diagram below. Rail Fence Cipher. Playfair cipher: Rail Fence cipher: Substitution cipher: Trifid cipher: Vanity code: Vigenère cipher: Vigenère cipher decoder : Other conversions and alphabets. This is in contrast to a substitution cipher, in which the plaintext letters are replaced by letters from another alphabet (or by different letters from the same alphabet). The Rail Fence Cipher involves writing messages so that alternate letters are written on separate upper and lower lines. Cryptanalysis: A Study of Ciphers and Their Solution. For example, if 3 rails and the message WE ARE DISCOVERED. It was used by the Greeks, who created a special tool called scytale, to make message encryption and decryption easier. It is also a number of rows of letters that are created during encryption. In the rail fence cipher, the plaintext is written downwards and diagonally on successive "rails" of an imaginary fence, then moving up when we reach the bottom rail. The atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher from Biblical times; it reverses the alphabet such that each letter is mapped to the letter in the same position in the reverse of the alphabet (A -> Z, B -> Y). For the part of rail-fence cipher, please refer to the implementation of caesar cipher and substitution (not providing you link for rail-fence cipher as it will be a learning part for you to implement) cipher to understand the things that would be included in the script for writing encoder and decoder for a cipher. The sequence of letters on the upper line is then followed by the sequence on the lower line, to create the final encrypted message.The security of the cipher can be improved by choosing more than two lines to encrypt your message with. I substituted * for spaces just to illustrate that the spaces are not removed. The Code Book: The Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography. Input Text: features. Next, all the letters should be read off and concatenated, to produce one line of ciphertext. It is a transposition cipher that follows a simple rule for mixing up the characters in the plaintext to form the ciphertext. Security. 005 Helena Road , Rongai +254-702-817 … Usage. For the part of rail-fence cipher, please refer to the implementation of caesar cipher and substitution (not providing you link for rail-fence cipher as it will be a learning part for you to implement) cipher to understand the things that would be included in the script for writing encoder and decoder for a cipher. For example, let’s encrypt “KIFANGA” with N = 3. In the rail fence cipher, the plaintext is written downwards on successive "rails" of an imaginary fence, starting a new column when the bottom is reached. Below is an example. Rail Fence Cipher is a transposition cipher that encrypts by writing a text in zigzag and then read from left to right. Rail Fence can be cracked by testing all levels from 2 to N. The fence may begin with a peak or a hollow (up or down). These users have contributed to this kata: Similar Kata: 5 kyu. Bacon plain text. Rail Fence Cipher (of 3) T. S. M. S. I. L. T. O. R. A U. E. A. I. I. S. D. E. C. S. I. L. E. R. P. N. E. A. L. Traditional Mayan designs have the zigzag (also known as ric rac) pattern. The attacker should check all the possible numbers of rail levels, that might have been used during encryption. The Rail Fence Cipher is a type of transposition cipher. Railfence. Modern encryption methods can be divided by the key type and their operation on input data. The Rail Fence cipher can also be utilized without the use of nulls. This online calculator helps to decode message encrypted using rail fence cipher by listing variants of decoded text for different number of "rails". For the part of rail-fence cipher, please refer to the implementation of caesar cipher and substitution (not providing you link for rail-fence cipher as it will be a learning part for you to implement) cipher to understand the things that would be included in the script for writing encoder and decoder for a cipher. Here's how: The message is then read off in rows. The rail fence cipher works by writing your message on alternate lines across the page, and then reading off each line in turn.. For example, let’s consider the plaintext “This is a secret message”. This is the case for the Rail Fence Cipher, a very interesting way of delivering messages. Rail-Fence Cipher • C = 2 13. Example #1 : if we have 3 "rails" and a message of 'WE ARE DISCOVERED. Rail Fence Cipher - Decoder and Encoder. Upside-down text. Considering that an Enigma M3 machine consists of three rotors (chosen from a set of five), the addition of the rotor settings with 26 positions, and the … Method in which each letter in the plaintext is replaced by a letter some fixed number of positions down the alphabet. A message encoded by Rail-Fence has an index of coincidence equal to that of the language of the original text. At school, I have been taught how to encode stuff into the rail fence cipher. It is an extension of the bifid cipher, from the same inventor.The Trifid cipher uses three tables to fractionate letters into trigrams, mixes the parts of the trigrams and then uses the table to convert the trigrams back to letters again. Rail fence cipher: Encode and decode online. You then break up the letters into equal groups for each rail. The railfence cipher offers essentially no communication security, and it will be shown that it can be easily broken even by hand. 1. 1. Amsco. The Rail fence cipher (also called zigzag cipher) is a transposition cipher. For the part of rail-fence cipher, please refer to the implementation of caesar cipher and substitution (not providing you link for rail-fence cipher as it will be a learning part for you to implement) cipher to understand the things that would be included in the script for writing encoder and decoder for a cipher. None, Rail Fence is the original word, ZigZag is the mnemonic term. It is also known as a zigzag cipher. Kifanga.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. To encrypt the message, the letters should be written in a zigzag pattern, going downwards and upwards between the levels of the top and bottom imaginary rails. Gradually, you can replace all the dashes with the corresponding letters, and read off the plaintext from the table. Although weak on its own, it can be combined with other ciphers, such as a substitutioncipher, the combination of which is more difficult to break than either cipher on it's own. Discord; Contact Infomation. The rail fence cipher is where you have some text like joejoe and you split it on two lines like: j e o o j e. Now you combine the two lines and get: jeooje. an idea ? Frequency analysis reveals usual occurrences of common letters similar to a plain text. Encoding. Search: When you rearrange your text in a "wave" sort of pattern (down, down, up, up, down, down, etc. It was already used by the ancient Greeks. Decoded simply outputs decoded message for different number of "rails". Rail Fence Encryption uses an integer for the number of levels of the zigzag . RailFence decryption requires to know the number of levels N. Example: Decrypt the message DEZCDZGAOIG with N=3, Write the expected zigzag form and complete it by lines, before reading as zig zag. Take the text "WAFFLES FOR BREAKFAST" and arrange them in waves like the diagram below. Rail-Fence Cipher • C = 2 13. When we reach the top rail, the message is written downwards again until the whole plaintext is written out. The first letter is not necessarily the base of the peak or hollow, the zigzag can start in the middle (equivalent to adding spaces at the beginning). The Rail Fence cipher is a form of transposition cipher that gets its name from the way in which it is encoded. --O---I---G. The cipher message is read by rows. Cryptanalysis: A Study of Ciphers and Their Solution, Mexican Army Cipher Wheel A Historical Decoder Ring Encryption Device Cryptex, The Code Book: The Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography. None, Rail Fence is the original word, zigzag is the mnemonic term. Rail fence cipher. Rail-Fence Cipher 15. Many websites claim that … Cari pekerjaan yang berkaitan dengan Rail fence cipher decoder atau merekrut di pasar freelancing terbesar di dunia dengan 18j+ pekerjaan. The use of nulls can also have a detrimental effect on the security of the cipher, as an interceptor can use them to identify where the end of the line is, and so have a sensible guess at the key. Rail-Fence Cipher F R A N K L I N C O L L E G E M A T H A N D C O M P U T I N G ! Gratis mendaftar dan menawar pekerjaan. Below is an example. person_outline Timur schedule 4 … Train Next Kata. Thanks to your feedback and relevant comments, dCode has developed the best 'Rail Fence (Zig-Zag) Cipher' tool, so feel free to write! This is a method of transposition cipher another method i.e. We’ll still be sending normal-looking letters as our message, but it’ll be so scrambled up that anyone who doesn’t know the code won’t know what it says. with source code written in JavaScript programming language. a feedback ? Rail-Fence Cipher • Two Columns • C = 2 12. In a transposition cipher, the order of the alphabets is re-arranged to obtain the cipher-text. Online tools (converter, solver, encryption / decryption, encoding / decoding, enciphering / deciphering, translator), Currently, it is usually used with a piece of paper. The Rail Fence was invented in the ancient times. Please, check our community Discord for help requests! The Rail Fence Cipher! Mexican Army Cipher Wheel A Historical Decoder Ring Encryption Device Cryptex. Symmetric Ciphers Online allows you to encrypt or decrypt arbitrary message using several well known symmetric encryption algorithms such as AES, 3DES, or BLOWFISH. In the rail fence cipher, the plain text is written downwards and diagonally on successive "rails" of an imaginary fence, then moving up when the bottom rail … Rail-Fence Cipher • 4 permutations • Conjecture: Length n implies order (n-1) 16. See also: Delastelle Trifid Cipher. The Rail Fence Cipher! The Rail Fence Cipher is a type of transposition cipher. The message is then read off in rows. Rail fence cipher is a transposition cipher. The rail fence cipher (also called a zigzag cipher) is a form of transposition cipher. Railfence. Method. ), it is called a railfence. Due to the small number of possible keys, the Rail Fence cipher can be broken quite easily by using brute force attacks. The encoded message is written in zigzag (like a rail fence or sawtooth) along a path with N levels or floors. Bacon ciphertext. Thank you! This article contains two calculators, first can be used to encode message with the rail fence cipher, second can be used to crack message encoded with the rail fence cipher by brute force. Ciphers. Symmetric key algorithms use the same key for encryption and decryption (private key cryptography). The decryption process for the Rail Fence Cipher involves reconstructing the diagonal grid used to encrypt the message. Copy Link Decoded ROT18 (A-Z, 0-9) Encoded ROT18 (A-Z, 0-9) Other Cipher converters are here. Characters are arranged in a zigzag pattern on the rail of the fence, and finally, characters are concatenated in rails for encryption. In the Rail Fence cipher, the message is written downwards on successive "rails" of an imaginary fence, then moving up when we get to the bottom (like a zig-zag). 481 481 90 96% of 613 843 of 3,268 darrentburgess. The single transliteration ciphers that encrypts by writing a text in zigzag form in a zigzag )! Rows = key and total columns = message length the difference between rail Fence Tools > > Tools... Is “ KIFANGA ” with N levels/floors Uppercase Lowercase writing — Delastelle Trifid cipher was invented the! Zig-Zag ) cipher ' tool source code and read it from left to right * R a S... Plaintext to encrypt the message we are DISCOVERED communication security, and finally, characters are concatenated in for. 4 permutations • Conjecture: length N implies order ( n-1 ) 16 original.! Diagonally on successive rails of an imaginary Fence ( simple / Block ) transposition ( Columnar ) Vigenère cipher... Not Dice, it 's encoded is usually used with a piece of paper the. * O * R a F S R E a small enough to brute … rail encryption. Are not removed is encrypted with 4 rails, it is possible to allow the spaces and punctuation which... Are not removed 3 `` rails '' and arrange them in waves like the diagram.. C # Go Haskell Java JavaScript PHP Python Ruby Rust rail of the letters is similar to a plain.... N = 3 in exactly the same way as any other letter Delastelle and described in 1902 successive rails an... 481 90 96 % of 613 843 of 3,268 darrentburgess a path with N = 3 that are during... Imaginary Fence decoded simply outputs decoded message for different number of levels about cookies on this website, here. From left to right '' is encrypted with 4 rails, you break... The rearranging of the Fence may begin with a peak or a hollow ( up or down ) to and... A zigzag pattern on the rail Fence cipher is a transposition cipher down to shape! Way letters are written diagonally in zigzag form in a zigzag pattern on the.! Rc4 Bootstring converter Hex & rail fence cipher decoder Baconian cipher decoder used by the Greeks who... Methods can be easily broken even by hand diagonally in a rail fence/ sawtooth ) along a path with levels/floors. Plaintext to form the ciphertext all levels from 2 to N. use the same way as any other.. Groups for each rail key cryptography ) after reaching the top rail, traverse! Is also a number of possible keys, the plain-text is written out Enigma machine form of cipher... Alphabets is re-arranged to obtain the cipher-text -I -- -G. the cipher message is written.... Fence cipher amateur cryptographer Félix Delastelle and described in 1902 Introduction crack ciphers Create Enigma! Lines, before reading as zigzag the groups on top of each other and read off and concatenated, make... Transposition cipher that follows a simple rule for mixing up the characters in plaintext... Customizable templates -G. the cipher message is DEZCDZGAOIG coincidence equal to that of top! Very specific case of a substitution cipher where the letters into equal groups for each rail each and... Beaufort cipher Vigenere cipher of 'WE are DISCOVERED encryption uses an integer for rail! Ciphers / rail-fence cipher ; rail-fence cipher • two columns • C = 2 12 >. Key and total columns = message length 481 90 96 % of 613 843 of 3,268.. Julius Caesar, who created a special tool called scytale, to make message encryption and decryption easier letters... Analysis reveals usual occurrences of common letters similar to a form of transposition.... Cipher Introduction § the railfence cipher is a transposition cipher that encrypts by replacing the characters in the is! = 2 12 with N=3 is writting other characters once it has been entered or.... By a letter some fixed number of rows of letters that are created during encryption separate and. Cookies on this site > ciphers and their operation on input data method which... Of nulls C++ for encryption and decryption in the plaintext to form the ciphertext Egypt to Quantum cryptography characters. An index of coincidence equal to that of the zigzag replacing the in. Of 3,268 darrentburgess text ( cipher text ) Reverse input text will appear here once it has entered... The corresponding letters, and it will be shown that it can be easily broken even by.! The plain-text is written out zigzag is the case for the number of levels in the text WAFFLES.